Description of E2G - Introduction

Description of E2G

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Energy Together provides a comprehensive understanding of the total energy area. This understanding can help actors to take the best environmental, social and economic decisions in the energy sector.

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E2G overview

We will now look at how the Energy-Together map is constructed by following the energy flows from the sources and to the places where we use energy for lighting, heating, PC's, transport, etc. Each of the above chapters will be reviewed. If you think it is too complicated, or if you want to know more, please feel free to sign up to Insero Science Academy Course: "Introduction to the energy sector and energy system" - see course descriptions.

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ENERGY TOGETHER MAP

With this map, you get an overview of the energy system and the energy sector and you can zoom in on the details. The thickness of the energy flows symbolizes the amount of energy extracted, transported and converted.

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WHAT CAN THE E2G MAP BE USED FOR?

You can use platform to ...

  • Overview of energy flows in Denmark and in the municipalities
  • Access to market data products and concepts in the energy system (Info on existing power plants through UDI database, info on energy consuming devices via the link to the DEA's databases and reports, etc.)
  • Understanding how the electricity market works (The Market Simulator shows the most important mechanisms in the Nordic spot market for electricity)
  • Identification of innovations across energy areas (Smart Grid, co-generation of electricity, heat and fuels for transport, energy stocks, etc.)
  • Potential for efficiency through the realization of synergies (eg. Waste incineration in power plants, the use of sewage sludge in the energy sector, while cooling and heating via heat pumps, etc.)
  • Better communication across skills and education levels (Interdisciplinary communication between engineers, economists, lawyers, electricians, engineers, etc.)
  • Increased motivation in their daily work (we are getting better at our work when we understand the role we play in the overall system)
  • Establishment of a holistic approach to energy
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The E2G map

The Energy Together map shows how energy flows from the places where it is extracted to the places where the energy is finally converted to energy services. The map also shows the decisions taken in the different parts of the energy system. There are the following dimensions in the Energy Together map:

  • The geography (country, region, municipality, place)
  • Time (year, month, week, day, hour, minute, second)
  • Location on energy flow map (energy form and technology)
  • Position in the decision chain from R & D to operations
  • The name of the actor

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Description of E2G - Energy Sources

Sources of Spring Energy

There are 5 Sources of Spring Energy 

We call the forms of energy that exists in nature for 'Primary energy'.

Let's take them one at a time and follow them to the point where we begin to exploit them.

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Fissile elements from supernovae

The uranium we use in nuclear power plants comes from very large stars that burned out many years ago and exploded in what we call supernovae. The fissile elements were sent into space as  an interstellar cloud of dust (nebulae). The earth was later formed from these nebulae. By splitting the nucleus of an atom into its component, we can recover some of the energy that binds the neutrons and the protons  together in the core. We call this the 'Nuclear'

Nuclear power plants as we know them today, are not renewable energy because the amount of uranium on earth is limited and final. There is not being supplied continuously more uranium from space.

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Electromagnetic radiation from the sun

The energy from the sun comes from the core processes in which light atomic nuclei fuse together, and emits energy. The energy comes to earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation -what we call the sun's rays.

The sun warms the oceans. Some of the water evaporates, rises, and is blown into the country. Here, the water vapor condenses and becomes rain. When rain water flows back to the sea, we can use the energy thus formed in our energy system. This kind of energy we call hydro power.

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Electromagnetic radiation from the sun

We can also directly transform electromagnetic radiation from the sun into electricity in solar PV and some of the solar energy we use for heating via solar heating systems and heat pumps

We call this solar energy, because here we directly use the electromagnetic rays from the sun in our energy system

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Electromagnetic radiation from the sun

A portion of the energy from the sun heats the land and seas, and creates high and low pressure. This creates air streams. The air streams run from high to low pressure. We can use these flows directly in our energy system. This kind of energy we call "Wind".

The wind creates waves on the ocean. The energy contained in the waves we call "Wave". The sun creates temperature differences in the oceans, and the temperature differences creates water current. This energy we call "Ocean Currents".

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Electromagnetic radiation from the sun

The plants on Earth absorbs radiation from the sun and converts it - through photosynthesis – to binding energy between atomic nuclei in organic material. People and animals eat some of this energy in the form of food. The waste products from our - and animals - digestion of the foods we use in the energy system to produce biogas and biodegradable waste. Some of the energy is saved in the form of biomass.

The part that is not used for food, we can utilize as biomass in the energy system. Biomass, which was formed on earth for many hundreds of years ago and which is now stored in the form of coal, oil and natural gas in the subsurface, we call fossil fuels. A small part of the fossil energy is used in the chemical industry, which produces products that are not bio-degradable, and when it becomes waste can be converted into energy.

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Nuclear processes in the core of the earth

In the center of the earth nuclear processes - where heavy radioactive atomic nucleus decays into iron - creates heat. This heat is transferred to the Earth’s surface. This kind of energy is called Geothermal Energy

When we drill deep into the Danish underground, we can utilize this heat energy. We call this "Geothermal".

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Mandmade fusion

We are working on - under controlled conditions - to create fusion processes on earth. This energy source is also called "nuclear energy".

If we succeed in developing the fusion process, we can also call it for renewable energy, as there are infinitely fuel on earth to be used in fusion processes. Nuclear energy can be divided into "Fission" in which heavy atomic nuclei are separated and "Fusion" in which light atomic nuclei fusion together.

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Gravitational forces from the moon

The last source of energy in the series comes from the moon's motion around the earth and the earth's rotation. The waters of the oceans are attracted to the moon, creating tides.

In some places, the tidal differences are so great that energy through tidal power plants with water turbines can be utilized in our energy system.

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Find the answer to the question

How many sources of spring energy are there?

Vælg det rigtige svar

  • 5
  • 6
  • 7


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Description of E2G - Extraction of energy

Extraction og primary energy

We now come to the place in E2G Map where we begin to extract the energy for later transportation and use

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Extraction of primary energy

We extract transportable primary energy when we ...

  • Dig coal out of the ground
  • Extract uranium out of rocks
  • Pumps oil and natural gas from the underground
  • Grows energy crops in the fields and harvest them
  • Collect residues from food production and from biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste
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Extraction og primary energy

Transportable and local primary energies

The "Transportable primary energy" is the energy that can be transported, and which we therefore do not need to convert to other forms of energy or energy services, the place where we extract it.

The local primary energy has to be converted into energy services or other energy forms the place where it is harvest, because it cannot be transported. It's what we call "Local primary energy". The "Local primary energy" (solar, wind, water, wave, ambient heat, tides, currents and geothermal energy), we return to - namely, the points of the Energy-Together map where the primary energy is converted into secondary energy and energy services.

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Extraction of transportable primary energy

Here is an overview of the primary energies that we can extract and transport

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Extraction of primary energy

On the Energy-Together map you can see the sizes of the primary energies, we annually extracts in Denmark. Figures are from DEA's statistics.

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The decision chain

The Energy-Together map also contains the chain of decisions that lead to changes in the extraction of energy. This chain we call "Decision Chain", and it goes from decisions regarding Research and Development – to decisions concerning the Operation of the extraction of energy.

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Extraction of primary energy

Energy-Together map

Here you see the part of the Energy-Together map concerning the extraction of transportable primary energy.

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Decisions concerning extraction of energy

The decision chain may point to each of the different primary energies. It is only the decisions in the chain that is changed when it either points to the coal, natural gas, oil, or biomass. Here is an example of the decisions taken within the oil extraction

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Question regarding extraction

To which category belongs Wind Power 

Vælg det rigtige svar

  • Transportable primary energy
  • Local primary energy


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Description of E2G - Transportation of primary energy

Transportation of primary energy

We have extracted the primary energy. Now it must be transported to where it is to be transformed into more manageable forms of energy (electricity, district heating etc.) or directly used for energy services.

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Transport of primary energy

Transportation

We transport primary energy from the extraction site to the place where the energy is converted to another form of energy or to energy services.

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Transport of primary energy

The transport of the primary energy is achieved by:

  • Regionally we transport oil and natural gas in large piping systems
  • Globally, we transport oil and liquefied natural gas in ships
  • Hard coal is typically transported by ship and rail. The market is international
  • You often see the establishment of plants at lignite mines to avoid the expensive transportation of lignite
  • Biomass in the form of wood chips and wood pellets are transported globally via ships and locally via trucks
  • Straw typically transported locally by truck
  • Manure for biogas is transported locally by tractor
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Transport of primary energy

Decisions in Energy-Together map

The decision chain for transport of primary energy is generally the same as for the extraction of energy. But the legislative and economic framework for decisions in the chain is of course different. This decision chain is also part of the Energy-Together map.

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Transport of primary energy

The Decision Chain interact with elements of the energy flows on the Energy-Together map.

Here is the part of the Energy-Together map that covers the extraction and transport of primary energy.

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Question regarding transport of primary energy

What proportion of the energy content of straw is used to transport the straw to the power plant?

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  • ca. 1 %
  • ca. 5 %
  • ca. 10 %


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Description of E2G - Production of secondary energy

Production of secondary energy

Now we have reached the point in energy flows, where we convert the primary energy to the much more manageable secondary energy.

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Production of secondary energy

We convert a large part to the extracted primary energy to other forms of energy we find it easier to transport and handle. These forms of energy we generally call "secondary energy".

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Production of secondary energy

The secondary energy is produced by

  • We produce electricity in thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, hydro power plants, in PV systems, in wind turbines, fuel cells, in wave power, tidal plant
  • We produce electricity and heat in combined operation of thermal power plants and fuel cells
  • We produce district heating in thermal boilers, solar heating systems and large heat pump systems
  • We produce oil products in oil refineries
  • We have slowly started to produce synthetic fuels as hydrogen, methanol and ethanol in chemical plants
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Production of secondary energy

Here you can see how we subdivide the secondary forms of energy

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Production of secondary energy

You can on Energy-Together map see an example of how much transportable primary energy in Denmark are converted into secondary energy on an annual basis

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Production of primary energy

In this place on the Energy-Together map, local primary energy (solar, wind, etc.) is converted to secondary energy. Here we place the part of the local energy, which is converted into grid-connected installations. A photovoltaic system on a house that is connected to the grid, is located here along with for example a solar power systems that are connected to district heating systems.

Power generation equipment that is not grid-connected, and individual heat production is placed on the Energy-Together map in the last part of the flows where the energy is converted to energy services.

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Production of secondary energy

Here you can see the local forms of energy that is converted into secondary energy and energy services

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Production of secondary energy

The decision chain for the conversion of primary energy into secondary energy is the same as you've seen earlier.

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Production of secondary energy

Secondary energy

When you on the Energy-Together map opens the box where the primary energy is converted into secondary energy, you can see how the production of electricity, heat and oil products are subdivided. When you have to understand the logic of this subdivision, you have to look at the decision chain and the laws that govern the various ways to convert primary energy into secondary energy.

The subdivision is not specific to the technologies, but by the way the system is organized and managed. The decision chain is therefore an important part of the Energy-Together map. The closer we get to the consumption stage, where the energy is converted to energy services, the more the subdivision is guided by social science relationship

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Production of secondary energy

Here is the part of the Energy-Together map that covers the extraction, transport and conversion of primary energy into secondary energy

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Questions regarding Ambient Heat

What is Ambient Heat?

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  • Heat coming for houses
  • Heat from solar collectors
  • Heat fed into heat pumps


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Description of E2G - Transport of secondary energy

Transmission and distribution

The transport of secondary energy is divided into "Transmission" and "Distribution". The transport can be compared to the road system where there is someone who manages motorways and the overall road system, and others that control the smaller more local roads. The losses are calculated as the difference between the energy transmitted into the transport system and the energy taken out at the other end.

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Transport of secondary energy

The transmission

  • Transmission of Electricity is performed in the high voltage grid where the voltage is above 100 kV. In Denmark, Energinet.dk is responsible for the high voltage grid
  • Transmission of heat in larger pipes. In the Copenhagen area, for example. CTR and VEKS are responsible for transmission. In the Triangle area Tvis is responsible

The distribution

  • Distribution of electricity is done through local consumer owned distribution companies
  • Distribution of district heating is done via the district heating companies
  • Distribution of oil products is done via the oil companies and other private actors
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Transport of secondary energy

The Decision Chain within in the transmission and distribution of secondary energy is the same as in the other parts of the energy flow system.

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Transport of secondary energy

Here you see Energy-Together map for extraction, transport, transformation of primary energy into secondary energy and transport of secondary energy

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Question concerning transport of secondary energy

At what voltage level you go from transmission to distribution in Denmark?

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  • At a voltage about 10 kV
  • At a voltage about 130 kV
  • At a voltage about 220 kV


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Description of E2G - Production of energy services

Production of energy services

We have now reached the last part of the energy flows where the energy is converted to energy services in the form of light, heating, PC, transport, etc.

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Production of energy services

In this part of the energy flows, we are transforming secondary energy to energy services. We also converts transportable primary energy to energy services. For example, we use firewood and natural gas for individual heating. Finally, we explore the local primary energy via solar panels and heat pumps for individual heating.

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Production of energy services

Production of energy services

  • In the Household sector, we use electricity for lighting, IT, cooking, heating, etc. - Natural gas for heating and cooking - district heating - heating oil
  • In "Manufacturing industries" and "Trade and services", we have the same types of consumption as in "Household", but the distribution is different. Added to this we have energy consumption for compressed air, evaporation, ventilation etc.
  • In the transport sector will use petroleum products in the form of gasoline and diesel fuel in our cars. We use oil in trains and ships. We use kerosene for airplanes
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Production of energy services

The Decision Chain in the final consumption stage is different from the decision chain in the other parts of the energy flows. Until now, it has been the politicians and executive employees in the energy sector who made the decisions. Here in final consumption it is primarily private citizens and companies outside the energy sector who make decisions.

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Production of energy services

When we on Energy-Together map open the box for conversion to energy services, and looks at how production of energy services is divided into categories - technologies and natural science pays no role. Here the division is determined by the type of energy services being produced, by law and by the groups of consumers who make the decisions

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Production of energy services

The Energy-Together map for extraction, transport, transformation of primary energy into secondary energy, transport of secondary energy and conversion to energy services.

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Import - export

Import - export

Until now we have not focused on a specific geographic area, when we looked at the Energy-Together card. When we choose a specific geographic area, and will map the energy system in this area with the use of Energy-Together, we must expand the description of the energies flows with export out and import into the area.

We therefore adds an element: "Import of primary energy", at the place on the map where we calculate the transportable primary energy supplied to the system. We also adds an element: "Import of secondary energy", at the point where  secondary energy is supplied or produced in the system. In the final stage, where the energy is leaving the system because it is either converted to energy services or exported, we add two parts: "Exports of primary energy" and "Export of secondary energy."

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Storage of energy

When we will focus on a specific period of time, we have to add energy storage to energy system, as we do not need to use and export exact same amount of energy as we are extracting and importing. We can put energy in energy storage from one period to the next.

We put two boxes on the E2G map there where the energy flow to the geographical area. One part concerns the total energy resources in the area. The second part concerns the initial strage of primary energy, as we have already extracted. At the point where we add secondary energy to the system, we add an box that describes the secondary energy we have as initial energy storage. In the final stage, where the energy leaving the system we put two boxes on: "The end storage of primary energy" and "The end Storage of secondary energy."

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The total E2G map

The total E2G map

We have now defined to the whole Energy-Together map of the energy system in a geographical area and in a given time period.

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Examples of energy systems

More complex energy systems (composed of many small energy systems)

In order to grasp the more complex energy system, we place all conversion to energy services in a "box" al conversion to secondary energy in another "box", etc.

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The Danish Energy Flows

Energy flows in Denmark

In order to understand the complex energy system, we sort all conversion to energy services in a "box" al conversion to secondary energy in another "box", all transportation in a "Arrow" etc.

 

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Number of sectors in energy services

How many sectors are energy consumption divided in

Vælg det rigtige svar

  • 4
  • 5
  • 6


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Description of E2G - E2G

Energy Together

Energy Together

On Energy-Together platform you have the opportunity to make decisions in the energy system and see the consequences. You do this in the two simulator parts.

Market Simulator

Energy Flow Simulator

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Energy together - Markedssimulator

Markedssimulatoren er et andet eksempel.

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Energy Together

Energy Together

Når du bevæger dig rundt på den nuværende udgave at E2G-platformen, vil du se, at der er mange steder, hvor der mangler indhold i form af viden, informationer og data. Det er fordi processen med at udvikle en fælles platform først lige er startet.

Vi viser kun noget af den kortlægning af energisystemet og energisektoren, der er gennemført. Der mangler rigtig meget, men nu har vi strukturen og databasen, hvor vi sammen kan dele den nye viden, vi udvikler samt de data, vi i fællesskab indsamler.

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